The Ontario beer state of the union

Ontario Flag

On Thursday, at Beer Bistro in Toronto, awards were handed out to the fan favourites in a variety of categories for Ontario’s beer scene for the 2016 Golden Tap Awards.

The occasion, which likely skews a little too heavily toward Toronto beer bars and breweries, is probably about as good a way as any to take the pulse of the province’s current beer trends, and thus seemed to me like an appropriate time to reflect on the Ontario beer scene generally. Also, yes, I won one of these awards again last night and so I feel compelled to actually contribute something instead of resting on my laurels.

And so I had a few beers and thunk on it, and I’ve concluded that the craft beer scene in Ontatio is great.

But it’s time to get serious.

Things are pretty good…

It’s inarguable that it’s a pretty great time to drink beer in Ontario. Last night we saw Bellwoods Brewery take home the award for Best Brewpub or Tied House and Great Lakes Brewery’s Karma Citra IPA won an award for the Best Seasonal or Specialty Beer in Ontario. And certainly those are two excellent examples of how awesome Ontario beer can be and how far we’ve come. The voters of the GTAs also collectively gave the nod to Halo Brewery as the best newcomer in the province (full disclosure: With apologies to the deserving Callum Hay and Eric Portelance of HaloI actually cast my vote for Seaforth’s Half Hours on Earth since they’re a little closer to home for me these days and I’ve had an opportunity to try a lot more of their (amazing) beer. That’s cool though, Toronto. Now I get to keep saying I’m into a brewery a lot of people still don’t know about).

Anyway, what I’m trying to say is that things are good. Despite the rather Toronto-centric lens through which this industry is often viewed, beer drinkers across all of Ontario are benefitting from our growing scene. Breweries are popping up in small towns across the province and craft beer bars are becoming increasingly popular in even the staunchest brewery-dominated cities and college towns. (Shout out to Milos, Forked River, Beer Lab, Anderson, and Toboggan for holdin’ it down in Labatt’s/Western’s turf. Forest City, what.)

As of 8am on September 25, 2016, we have 188 operating breweries in this province and another 93 in the “planning stages” (and yes, 52 dirty gypsy contract breweries, too) according to the guide over on the Ontario Beverage Network. Two intrepid Ontario writers are also currently working diligently to catalogue all these breweries for a second edition of their book that attempts to list and rate all the beers these 200-ish breweries are making.

But with all this good comes some bad.

But this boom is also bringing with it some serious shit. And it’s probably time we got honest about that.

What I mean is that, because we now know what the “Ontario craft beer success story” looks like, it’s become something that is all that much easier to fake. We know what the “successful and cool Ontario brewery” branding looks like, we know what the “faux-rustic interior and garage door patio” small brewery décor is supposed to look like, we know how the medium-sized brewery does “community engagement”–we even know what the fucking Instagram-filtered-twice-daily-updates-of-life-in-the-brewery-and-what’s-available-in-the-bottle-shop are supposed to look like. But here’s something that not every brewery in Ontario seems to know how to do: Make great beer.

And so we have host of new (and old) breweries in this province who look and feel like a great brewery, but their beer isn’t very good. The marketing is there, the look, the vibe—but all too often, the fucking beer sucks. And we need to talk about that more.

It’s easy to get fired up about opening a brewery or running your existing brewery and trying new things when we see the awesome shit happening in Ontario beer. Beau’s All Natural Brewing Co, for example just seems to keep trumping their own achievements/marketing feats; following an announcement earlier this year about becoming employee-owned, the Vankleek Hill brewery announced a few days ago that they launched a crowdfunded campaign to help open a brewery in fucking Rwanda. That’s crazy. Awesome things like this are happening in craft beer all the time now (well, maybe “Rwanda brewery” isn’t happening all the time). And so it’s tempting to think you need to (or can ) do something wacky, original, or gimmicky with your brewery—and that can lead to trouble. Witness Henderson Brewing Co attempting to create the “Toronto Brewery District” and associating their name in press releases with more established brewers like Indie Alehouse, Junction Craft Brewing, and Bellwoods. The reaction was largely kept out of the public eye but it was swift and merciless (and also now largely water under the bridge).

The tide also seems to be turning for Bandit Brewery, who followed a proven recipe for cool brewpubs with an awesome location and swanky digs but, as Josh Rubin and Amy Pataki pointed out in the Toronto Star, seemingly didn’t put enough effort into important things like menu development and beer recipes.

We’ve also got Ace Hill Brewing, who’ve clearly led with their marketing–famously doing a fucking Holt Renfrew fashion spread–and by virtue of their connections and a willingness to leverage their “cool brand” have found themselves in some of Toronto’s best restaurants—despite the fact that they offer a fairly run-of-the-mill and overly-sweet Pilsner. In David Ort’s well-reasoned takedown of the brand for Post City, he talked to restaurateurs who carry the beer and who all told him, anonymously, that their reason for carrying Ace Hill is either the eye-catching branding or the fact that they’re friends with one of the partners.

That shit can’t fly if we want to move this scene forward.

Every beer fan who has ever stepped foot in Bellwoods Brewery has looked around at the always full house of sour-sipping Ossington strip scenesters and thought, “Man, I want to do this.”

Of course you fucking do! But the part you don’t see is Bellwoods Brewery’s owners working for years to learn their craft, toiling meticulously at their beers, and sampling and relentlessly trying to make better beer. They are not spending their days on twitter, designing t-shirts, or drafting press releases to stir up buzz. That’s the fun shit that comes after the hard work. You need to earn the fun part. If the first thing you did when you decided to open a brewery was to register a domain name, don’t open a fucking brewery please.

Thankfully though, Ontario’s beer drinking public is savvy enough to sniff out the bullshit. You only go back for the sizzle so many times if your steak is overcooked and I strongly believe that, given time, consumers will dictate the way this market shifts and the good stuff will float to the top–but there are things that government, we critics of the beer industry, and brewers themselves can do to make that process happen more quickly. So let’s fucking do that.

The government.

If you’ve been paying attention to the beer industry in Ontario for the last few years, you know that many newspaper column inches (and entire ranty blogs. Ahem.) used to be devoted to the insane fuckery that is Ontario’s liquor legislation.

Of course, all that’s changed now, right? The province created an advisory committee led by former TD bank CEO Ed Clark with the goal of updating the way Ontario sells beer, and there has been a report released entitled Striking the Right Balance: Modernizing Beer Retailing and Distribution in Ontario demonstrating that the province is finally going to tackle our near-century old liquor laws. Ontario was gifted with the ability to buy beer in some grocery stores, the LCBO started selling growlers, and surely we’re now on the right track and the prospect of selling beer in Ontario for small brewers is far less terrible than it once was.


Well, no.

Sure, brewers now have the ability to sell beer at something like 60 grocery stores, but it’s still legislated that government-owned stores and a chain of 400 private stores owned by massive corporations based at least in part in the States, in Brazil, in Belgium, or in Japan are the only places other than at actual breweries (and those scant grocers) where brewers can sell their beer.

We still need to see some real legislative change in this province, and actual buy-in from government if craft beer is going to reach the levels of excellence it truly can. There is still far too much pandering to the donation-friendly big brewers who run The Beer Store and thus a lot of red tape for small brewers, and still far too few options for locations to actually sell beer. I still believe strongly that, if we’re not going to embrace full privatization, Ontario’s craft brewers should be allowed to operate their own stores, away from their production spaces or, at the very least, have the option to sell beer made by other brewers should they wish. I think you’d see the collaborative spirit of Ontario beer at work, brewers would embrace “cross-selling,” and there’d be a lot more great beer being made available in areas it hasn’t been available yet.

The critics.

Being a freelance writer who covers any specific industry presents one with something of a conundrum. Being good at your job, and providing your readers with insight into the industry you cover, necessitates that you have some level of access to your industry that most people don’t have. In the world of beer writing, good stories come from hearing about projects, breweries, events, intrigue, bar openings–whatever–first; chatting with brewers, and being allowed to peek “behind the curtain” from time to time. Accordingly, there can occasionally be a temptation not to piss people off so as not to be denied that important access (and, let’s be honest, the free beer). Of course, if you’re writing in a style designed not to piss people off, you’re essentially just doing PR for brewers and that is boring and meaningless and thus a total waste of everyone’s fucking time. So stop that please.

If Ontario beer is to get to the “next level,” the basic things that we, my fellow beer writers, old and new, can do to help it get there are this: When you’re writing, stop thinking of the breweries and their employees as your friends and have a fucking opinion. It is not sufficient simply to cheerlead. Hold brewers accountable.  The good and talented beer makers in this province might be mad at first, but if you’re offering constructive, insightful, and honest feedback (and not simply trashing everything for the sake of being snarky) most breweries will (eventually) see your thoughts as constructive criticism and maybe even an opportunity to improve their product or the way they do business. This is the way critics earn respect in this industry, not by tweeting out hand jobs to the brewers who offer up the best “beer mail” or who pay for a weekend junket that includes segway tours of the Distillery District and axe throwing. Ahem.

But really brewers, this is on you.

So let’s get real. The beer industry is probably not going to be saved by a sudden change in government sympathies that sees sweeping changes to our liquor legislation. We just saw the biggest changes to liquor laws since prohibition and we barely moved the ball forward five yards. Furthermore, despite what one angry publican in the Junction might think, the job of policing the beer industry can’t fall on the shoulders of beer writers. And I’m not just saying that because most of us don’t have shoulders thanks to years hunched at our laptops.

If Ontario beer is going to get better, our breweries have some work to do.

First and foremost, please stop being so damn sleazy.

Yes, we’re going to have the “draught lines conversation” again. Ontario beer isn’t going to get better when the thing that dictates which beers are on tap in all our bars is who was willing to pay the most money for a draught line install, who threw in the most free kegs, or who was willing to shell out for chalkboards and table-toppers. It creates a race to the bottom that newer and smaller brewers can’t compete with and ultimately only hurts the craft beer scene as a whole. I won’t get into all the myriad reasons yet again but it is beyond time to get this technically illegal practice out in the open.  We all kind of “wink wink nudge nudge” about it. Everyone I talk to about says something to the effect of “Well we don’t do it, but…”

And that’s bullshit.

Every sales rep I talk to is hesitant to publicly name bars for fear of losing that account. And so we all pretend to be mad about it and act as though there’s nothing that can be done about it. And we pretend we don’t know why a bar is mostly Amsterdam products, or we play dumb about why the bar with the Muskoka Brewery patio umbrellas is so excited to sell you some Detour, and we don’t wonder why there is so frequently two very similar Flying Monekys beers on tap, or why we, as an industry, accept the odd keg “thrown in” with a large purchase of Collective Arts beer. And yes–gasp!–I’m using real brewery names here for once. But the truth is, I could substitute in virtually any brewery name. Many brewers in Ontario publicly applaud me and send me private congratulatory emails when I open my big yap about our pay-to-play environment but here’s the simple, hypocritical truth: ALL BREWERIES DO THIS.

When the AGCO clearly has no interest in enforcing rules that are clearly stated in our liquor legislation and when bars feel free to literally solicit breweries with emails seeking the highest bidder to put on tap, this practice is only going to stop if breweries take a stand together and decide to end this practice. If bars want to serve beer from the highest bidder, let them serve Labatt products. That’s their loss. Ontario’s brewers have to hold themselves to higher standards than fucking Budweiser. This is not going to change unless someone (paging the OCB!) makes an actual stand on this issue and puts it into writing: Our members will not influence bar owners with cash or incentives in exchange for exclusivity, and if they do, there will be consequences.

Just do it already. My arms are getting tired from beating this dead horse.

Lastly, and most importantly, Ontario’s brewers need to put the beer first.

You can have the best marketing, the coolest location, the flashiest branding, and you can flood the beer bloggers homes with free swag, but If your beer is shit, nothing else matters.

So perfect your beer, then name it and come up with a label. Not the other way around. Do quality control. Don’t settle for mediocre beer. Get a fucking lab. Remember that the brewers are your rock stars, not your sales team. It’s easy to forget when the loudest marketing team gets the attention or the biggest offer for payola gets the draft line, but the people making your beer are really important. Brewing isn’t glamourous work. There are guys and girls behind the logos and t-shirts who are shovelling spent grain and toiling with caustic. They’re mostly not on twitter and they’re not reading blogs. They’re busy making beer and cleaning. So much cleaning. These are the people who can help lead your company. They make beer because they’re passionate about it. So give them a seat at the table when you make decisions that affect your company. If the person making your beer is the last to know about your vision for the company, you’re doing it wrong.

It starts with good beer, so build your company on that. The state of Ontario’s beer industry is really good. And if those who are interested in improving it try a little harder, it can easily be great.

(Also, enough with the crystal-malt-heavy pale ales, please.)

EDIT: In the section of this post addressing “keg deals” I originally included an insinuation that “the price of a keg of Beau’s Lug Tread sometimes isn’t the same for two bars that are side by side.” I will admit that this part of the post was based only on information I received second-hand. Since posting this, I have been contacted by Beau’s owner, Steve Beauchesne whose email to me included the following:

A keg of Beau’s is always the same price, no matter what the venue. We go even further in that regard and try to keep it as close to the same price per litre for smaller keg sizes, to encourage smaller bars to order the size that keeps beer fresh, instead of buying a keg size that will sit longer but give the bar a discount.

We aren’t perfect, and if someone wants to really dig into it, I’m sure they would find many reasons to criticize us, but this one is just way off base.

Given Steve’s willingness to state publicly that the price is always the same, I am more than happy to remove that part of the post and I sincerely apologize for spreading a rumour. If any other breweries I mentioned here feel comfortable putting in writing that their keg prices are always the same, I would be happy to print that addendum as well.

33 thoughts on “The Ontario beer state of the union

  1. Hey Ben,

    We’ve been open 9 months and are slowly getting out to bars and licensees. Our town’s largest local bar has just broken down and put us on tap despite asking us repeatedly for a deal for many months. We don’t do deals and our beer is not cheap. We assume that our beer will sell and people will love it, and that’s why it should get put on tap.

    We too hope OCB can step up and take a stand on this.

    Cheers, Joanne

    Joanne Richter The Second Wedge Brewing Co. 14 Victoria Street Uxbridge, ON L9P 1B1

    brewery (905) 852-3232 mobile (416) 574-1022


    1. That’s a great situation to be in, Joanne. Often when you’re the new local beer, customers begin to demand your beer at bars and the bars are forced to come back to you and offer you a fair price for your beer. In more crowded markets, that’s not always the case. I commend you for your first nine months. I’d be curious to hear about your experiences and business practices in a year or two when you’re looking to expand distribution and build licensee business.

    2. Second Wedge Beer sells well at our bar, they’ve done an excellent job. We are also one bar that does not allow our draught lines to be bought out. We have 12 and they are all up for grabs on a regular basis.

  2. BOOM! – Except I know for a fact at least one brewery does not play the tap line game and I would bet good money there are 2 or 3 others that don’t (out of the 100 or so that do).

  3. I can picture Ben in his best Don Cherry suit; I agree wholeheartedly witht the second half of the article…part 1; mostly. The true craft beer drinking public has a pretty damn good idea if who to support and why…I’m happy to leave Old tomorrow, Lost Craft, Spearhead et al to the masses…more Half hours, Barncat, Innocente for me!

    Time will tell who succeeds, when critical
    beer mass is reached, and
    with the resultant
    implosion- good beer will survive….As will swill, so drink what you want, where you want. Btw, I’m hopeful Bandit will improve with time, just like Folly + Burdock.

  4. Last year’s Toronto Beer Week official beer Six Boroughs was infected and nobody talks about it. That’s where we’re at. Infected beer, premium price and the emperor’s new clothes reaction.

    I follow a bunch of beer bloggers on social media and learned about exploding cans of Amsterdam Radler on CP24. Not to pick on them but it’s a small part of the bigger picture.

    1. To be fair, most beer bloggers/writers found out about the Amsterdam Radler recall the same way you did – i.e. via CP24 or other media – because unlike the Side Launch recall a couple of months ago, Amsterdam didn’t announce it themselves, and I don’t think they even made a statement about it after it went public. So unless we pay attention to Health Canada recall notices (which maybe we should start doing?), it’s didn’t hit our radar.

  5. It’s a nice idea, but it’s not going to happen. The consequence of the OCB expelling its members for incentivizing sales or offering keg deals is an OCB about half the size with no budget and significantly less power. Additionally, the AGCO is not structurally equipped to investigate the practice reactively, let alone proactively. They don’t have the manpower nor will they as the same pool of government funding from which they draw their budget can be used for regulating industries like automotive and pharmaceuticals upon which peoples’ lives actually depend.

    Look for a moment at the Massachusetts version of this scandal. Pretty Things instigated investigation into pay to play practices and were found guilty by proxy when their distributor was found guilty of it. The upshot of all of this activity is that Pretty Things is now in England and people are being slightly more circumspect about paying to play in Massachusetts.

    Even were it possible to kick over the rock, it’s a bad idea since you don’t know what’s under the rock.

    1. Jordan, Pretty Things is actually now defunct. Don’t know that it has anything to do with the pay to play scandal but yeah, they’re gone.

  6. Jordan – the AGCO has the LARGEST detachment of the OPP at their disposal and lots of money. The largest. So, theres another reason they choose not to go after the payola – the industry they regulate asks them not to. Only when it embarrasses someone do they get on it, in the mean time they use their force to do other (not entirely unworthy things) that focus on public safety, rather than payola and the like.

  7. You are 100% correct. New Brunswick is in desperate need of a real beer writer. One that knows a good beer from infected swill, and is not playing buddy-buddy with the owners. When a so-called beer expert (which he is not) promotes an infected and diacetyl laced mess, being passed off a craft beer, he has to be called out. Time for a change CP.

  8. Dirty Gypsys? Really?????? Way to ruin a altogether great article with a racist throwaway line aimed at getting a cheap laugh.

    Do better.

    1. “Gypsy” is a term for contract brewers. I wasn’t attempting to be derogatory toward Roma people. Also, it was a joke. There are at least two contract brewers whose beers I like.

      1. Is your argument really “well these people (who may or may not be Roma” don’t mind me using this racial epithet, then it must be okay?

  9. Thanks Ben
    With little insight. the industry does appreciate the beating of said dead horse.
    and mostly because not every BREWERY DOES THIS.! Thanks for keeping the fight for the true and just an optimistic one.

  10. I remember years ago asking Milos in London why he kept bringing in that shitty Nicklebrook beer. He said, “If we don’t support them now they won’t be around to develop good beer in the future.”
    Do we have enough good beer in Ontario now that we don’t need to support the startup guys? Part of me says its survival of the fittest, but I’ve also had a few “mistakes” in a pint glass from young breweries then who make consistently good beer now.

    1. Shitty Nickel Brook? Start up?
      While opinion on beer is subjective, I can’t help but feel you have no idea what you’re talk about.
      Nickel Brook has been around for over 6 beers, and has numerous SKUs that have even made it to the LCBO speaking to the fact that there is indeed a market and a fan base for it. From the LCBO SKU’s like Headstock IPA, Naughty Neighbour APA, Cause & Effect Blonde Ale, Le Paysan Saison, and a variety of other creative seasonals found at the brewery, I think its safe to say the Nickel Brook is surviving because they are in fact, fit for the market.

      1. I think you missed the point. I believe Nickelbrook IS a good brewery now but they have developed and improved over the years. Young breweries may make a weak beer from time to time but with a certain level of support can evolve into something excellent.

  11. Excellent article Ben. My partner and I have our manufacturing license, and have had it for a little while now. We have yet to bring beer to the market as I am still tweaking recipes to make sure our beer is solid before it hits bars (even with one of our beers having won a prestigious award). The beer needs to lead the way!

    It is very disheartening knowing how the AGCO willingly turns a blind eye to the inducement issue. This topic was brought up with the AGCO when I was a student at Niagara College’s Brewmaster program. We (Brewmaster class) were in complete shock when the official word from the AGCO representative in the class, was that the inducement practice was a fallacy, and that it actually DID NOT EXIST. “Businesses can’t afford to do these things” is what we were all told.

    We were speechless. An entire future generation of brewers learned that this regulatory body operates in a dream world and are not to be relied upon.

    We pondered all of this with a pint at the campus pub, under the shade of Rickard’s Red patio umbrellas.

  12. The Emperor’s New Clothes syndrome is rampant, and most people can’t tell if a beer is infected, full of diacetyl or has wild yeast in it. All they want is what’s “new and shiny”. Nevermind that Brewery “X” has made flawless great tasting craft beer for years. A new brewery or a new beer or variation on a style comes along and they flock to it like mindless lemmings.
    The brewers are not necessarily to blame, they’re just chasing the trend. The ones that stay true to themselves and make the same great craft beer time after time get the shaft in these cases.
    The “rotating tap” fad that so many bar owners are adopting is the cause of this mess. There are precious few great craft beers out there, and it’s getting harder and harder to find them for the simple fact that they’ve been around for more than six weeks.

  13. This is one of the better articles you’ve written for a few reasons, even if it still comes off as a little sanctimonious. One of the biggest problems I see with Ontario beer is that self-proclaimed beer snobs/experts (and I’m including some bloggers and critics here) often themselves are somewhat ignorant of what actually makes a “good beer”, and instead are persuaded by reputation, personal preference (“this wheat is too hoppy to be a wheat so it must be bad!”) and by the ubiquitous “faux-rustic interior and garage door patio” of the so called “cool” breweries. The flip side of the coin of good branding not equalling good beer is that good beer doesn’t have to come in the same branding package. Ontario beer drinkers seem to be looking for a scene more so than a good pint most of the time, and they wouldn’t know a tainted batch of beer if it hit them if the face. It’s great to see you naming breweries for shady tap line practices but if everyone is doing it as you say, that it doesn’t amount to much. I think talking more openly about which beers/breweries in this province are terrible and which are making great beer, independent of everything else about how hip or cool (or not) the branding is. For example, I have been told by several people in the biz that the Oast House Barn Raiser has been a terrible and unreliable beer for years, frequently suffering from one or more brewing taints, but the average drinker has no idea. In fact, many people seem quite content to drink it as is — so what incentive would the brewery have to fix any problems? Especially if there isn’t any serious beer criticism out there willing to call a spade a spade.

    I also think that the Ontario scene could do well to learn from this letter published by Tool Shed Brewing in Alberta to one of its customers ( Namely, there are a few simple and easy to follow rules for beer drinkers. I would highly encourage bloggers to take note of these as well, especially when it comes to social media. I particularly like these:

    1. Don’t be an asshole.
    5. Beer is meant to bring people together, not tear them apart. and
    8. It’s just beer. Don’t take it too seriously.

    With those rules in mind, to those people out there drinking tainted Barn Raiser or whatever and enjoying it I say: have at it. I’ll even take the plunge from time to time. But if market forces ultimately won’t force breweries to make better beer, I don’t know what will.

  14. Good article. I like how you mention that beer critics must hold breweries accountable, however, in your article about the Side Launch recall you fail to hold accountable the brewery that released sub-standard product. You should name names……in the name of accountability.

    “But let’s face facts, corners are often cut in the name of profit. Many new breweries, for example, don’t even have onsite labs and don’t justify paying the cost to get their stuff tested offsite. That’s simply insane. And to my mind, extremely short-sighted.

    There was a time recently where I picked up a few cans of a reliable Ontario beer made by a not-that-small-or-new brewery and knew fairly quickly after opening one that something was wrong. And it wasn’t long before I heard a few whispered rumours or got a few inquisitive emails from blog readers asking what was up with said Reliable Ontario Beer. As is my wont, I reached out to the brewer who oversees production of Reliable Ontario Beer and asked if something was up with the beer. His unfortunate answer was yes, there was something wrong with the last batch of Reliable Ontario Beer, but the brewery had opted to send the beer to the LCBO anyway.”

  15. I gave up on Ontario beer over 20 years ago and started to make my own. So, am I supposed to sell all of my brewing equipment and start buying Ontario beer again? Nope. Ontario Craft beer is too expensive. I have bought lots of Ontario beer that just was not to my liking, so I will continue to make the beer I like and it’s priced right.

  16. Good article. I agree that breweries need to invest in the quality of their beer. As an industry we are only as strong as are weakest link. It just takes someone to taste a bad beer once or twice to form a negative opinion about that beer, brand and the whole “craft beer” industry in general. However as a brewer who has worked in start-ups before I know how hard maintaining quality can be. You have new equipment to become familiar with, you are still refining your processes and recipes, and it is hard (if not impossible) to build a quality lab or send your beer to a 3rd party quality lab when you are spread thin manpower and financially speaking (as someone hinted to above). So that is why I would like to help. Here at Henderson Brewing Company we have been lucky enough to put together a small but solid qc lab, and we are more than happy to sharer our lab equipment and offer or testing services to any brewery wanting to have their beer tested. We will do the testing for you, all we ask is that you cover the cost of any materials that we use up as part of the testing (chemicals, disposable vials, etc.). We truly believe a rising tide lifts all boats. If any brewery is interested feel free reach out to us –

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